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 国际私法中弱者利益保护原则之法律检索指南
            胡婕 点击量:256
浙江大学光华法学院,2016级科硕国际法学
Legal Research Pathfinder
——On the Protection of the Interests of the Weak in Private International Law
    

  第一部分 国际私法中弱者利益保护论题的背景

  首先,任何一部法律都是时代的产物,任何一种原则或者规则的诞生都离不开时代的本身。随着全球政治的多元化和各国经济的互补性日益增强,特别是目前“一带一路”战略的铺开使得我国与其他国家的交往更加密切。目前,互联网的发展已经从电子信息时代进入微时代,便利的交流方式使得跨国贸易及人口流动愈加频繁、涉外民商事交往活动之规模日益扩大,致使各种涉外纠纷发生的频率和数量都逐步增长。当前的研究应当不止立足于对涉外纠纷的解决,也应当致力于规避与解决法律冲突,因此应当更加深入而广泛地了解其他国家的法律,以达到和谐的国际社会状态。第二,20世纪30年代,美国兴起冲突法革命,要求实质正义代替形式正义。20世纪末,社会本位成为许多国家冲突立法的主导思想和主要原则。社会本位的法律观追求国内乃至国际社会公共和整体利益最大化,注重社会整体均衡发展,保障社会整体效率提升,以社会为基本出发点构建法律制度和法律规则,要求一国的私法遵循国际社会公认的准则,为整个人类的可持续发展建立良好的法律秩序。在这样的法律观下,对弱者利益的保护对于国际私法来说始终是十分重要的命题。第三,2011年我国《民事法律关系法律适用法》颁布,而2016年开始我国进行编纂民法典工程。在民法典的编纂中,如何定位与进一步修改法律适用法也将是一个重要的议题。而在之后的修改之中,应继续考虑如何进一步更好地保护弱者的权利并同时达到法律所要求的真正平等,以更好地实现社会利益和个人利益的协调,最终实现社会的和谐。

  第二部分国际私法弱者权益保护之文献检索指南概述

  一、关键词

  国际私法(private International Law)

  人权(human rights)

  实质公平(substantial justice)

  弱者(the weak)

  弱者利益保护(the protection of the weak; the protection of the

  disadvantages)

  法律适用法(applicable law)

  冲突法(conflict law)

  二、5W分析法

  (1)Who(国际私法弱者利益保护所涉及的对象)

  立法者(legislator),法官(judge),学者(scholar),涉外民事案件当事人(parties of foreign-related civil law)

  (2)what(国际私法弱者利益保护内容)

  最密切联系原则(The most significant relationship principle),有利于原则(The principle favorable to one party),反致(renvoi),保留(reserve),连结点(connecting points)

  (3)where(弱者利益保护的范围)

  法院(court),立法机关(the legislature)

  (4)when(对弱者利益进行保护的时间)

  立法(legislation)、审判(trial)

  (5)why(国际私法中对弱者利益保护的原因)

  人权保护(protection of human right),实质公平(substantive justice),社会整体利益最大化(Maximize the overall interests of society),社会本位的法律观(legal view of social-oriented)

  三、检索词语

  1、中文检索词语

  弱者、有利于原则、强制性冲突规范、法律适用

  2、英文检索词语

  The interests of the Weak, Protection, Public Policy, Substantive Justice, Applicable law

  四、阅读对象

  目前,国际公约和大多数国家的实体法都倾向于保护弱者的利益。有些从原则和制度的制定方面入手,有些从冲突规范上对弱者权益给予特殊规定以体现对弱者利益的保护。当前来看,各国对弱者利益的保护主要体现在涉外婚姻家庭领域、涉外合同领域和涉外侵权领域。2011年我国《涉外民事关系法律适用法》正式实施,这是我国加强对弱者权益保护的重要体现。但我们通过对此也可以发现,相较于域外国际私法立法,我国无论在立法还是在司法裁判中对于弱者利益的保护都还相当欠缺。本文希望通过对国内外文献的检索和梳理,为之后从事国际私法弱者利益研究的人员所用。故从广泛意义上来说,所有与本文论点相关的人员都是本文的阅读对象,其中主要包括:立法者、法官、国际私法学者、涉外民事案件的当事人、律师。

  第三部分、中国法律资源

  一、一次资源

  1、法律

  【检索路径】北大法宝--中央法规司法解释--法律适用

  【检索结果】

  ●《中华人民共和国涉外民事关系法律适用法》第3章,第25~第30条;第6章第42条、第45条。(北大法宝,【法宝引证码】CLI.1.139684)

  第25条 父母子女人身、财产关系,适用共同经常居所地法律;没有共同经常居所地的,适用一方当事人经常居所地法律或者国籍国法律中有利于保护弱者权益的法律。

  第29条 扶养,适用一方当事人经常居所地法律、国籍国法律或者主要财产所在地法律中有利于保护被扶养人权益的法律。

  第30条 监护,适用一方当事人经常居所地法律或者国籍国法律中有利于保护被监护人权益的法律。

  第42条 消费者合同,适用消费者经常居所地法律;消费者选择适用商品、服务提供地法律或者经营者在消费者经常居所地没有从事相关经营活动的,适用商品、服务提供地法律。

  第45条 产品责任,适用被侵权人经常居所地法律;被侵权人选择适用侵权人主营业地法律、损害发生地法律的,或者侵权人在被侵权人经常居所地没有从事相关经营活动的,适用侵权人主营业地法律或者损害发生地法律。

  2、司法解释

  ●《最高人民法院关于适用<中华人民共和国涉外民事关系法律适用法>若干问题的解释(一)》第10条(北大法宝,【法宝引证码】 CLI.3.192329)

  第10条 有下列情形之一,涉及中华人民共和国社会公共利益、当事人不能通过约定排除适用、无需通过冲突规范指引而直接适用于涉外民事关系的法律、行政法规的规定,人民法院应当认定为涉外民事关系法律适用法第四条规定的强制性规定:

  (一)涉及劳动者权益保护的;

  (二)涉及食品或公共卫生安全的;

  (三)涉及环境安全的;

  (四)涉及外汇管制等金融安全的;

  (五)涉及反垄断、反倾销的;

  (六)应当认定为强制性规定的其他情形。

  3、案例

  【检索路径】北大法宝--司法案例--法律适用、弱者、权益保护

  【检索结果】共14篇,法宝推荐5篇,普通案例9篇。

  ●《李敏等诉区兆深抚养费案》,广东省中山市中级人民法院判决书【(2011)中中法民一终字第776号】

  (1)裁判要点

  二审的焦点之一在于一审法院适用《中华人民共和国婚姻法》的决定是否正确。中山市中级人民法院经审理认为:因李敏、李诚系香港居民,本案为涉港抚养费纠纷。《中华人民共和国涉外民事关系法律适用法》第二十九条规定:“扶养,适用一方当事人经常居所地法律、国籍国法律或者主要财产所在地法律中有利于保护被扶养人权益的法律。”香港特别行政区《未成年人监护条例》规定:“该未成年人的父亲或向该申请人支付一笔款项的命令;该笔款项(不论是整笔或分期支付)乃用以应付该未成年人的当前及非经常需要,或用以应付此命令发出前因赡养该未成年人而合理招致的债务或支出,或用以应付上述两者,款额为法院于顾及该名父亲或母亲的经济状况后认为合理者。”《中华人民共和国婚姻法》第二十一条第二款规定:“父母不履行抚养义务时,未成年的或不能独立生活的子女,有要求父母付给抚养费的权利。”最高人民法院《关于人民法院审理离婚案件处理子女抚养问题的若干具体意见》第7条规定:“子女抚养费的数额,可根据子女的实际需要、父母双方的负担能力和当地的实际生活水平确定。”由于香港与内地法律关于被抚养人抚养费的规定基本一致,故原审适用内地法律并无不当。

  (2)案例讨论

  本案中法院在适用法的确定上经过了内地与香港法律对比这一步骤,以便挑选出最有利于当事人的法律。虽然在本案中,内地与香港法律对于被扶养人的规定类似所以法院最后使用了《中华人民共和国婚姻法》,但在司法裁判过程中体现出了对弱者利益的保护。

  ●申请人胡某某与被申请人余某某申请撤销监护人资格案,上海市闵行区人民法院【(2015)闵民一(民)特字第39号】

  (1)裁判要点

  法院认为,因申请人胡某某系加拿大国籍,本案为涉外监护纠纷。《中华人民共和国涉外民事关系法律适用法》第三十条规定:“监护,适用一方当事人经常居所地法律或者国籍国法律中有利于保护被监护人权益的法律。”本案中,被监护人郑甲自出生起,便随父母及外祖父母共同在上海生活,父母去世后,一直由外祖父母实际承担其日常的生活和学习。从有利于郑甲的身心健康及成长角度看,适用我国法律更有利于保护郑甲的权益。

  根据《中华人民共和国民法通则》规定,未成年人的父母是未成年人的监护人。未成年人的父母已经死亡或者没有监护能力的,由下列人员中有监护能力的人担任监护人:(一)祖父母、外祖父母;(二)兄、姐;(三)关系密切的其他亲属、朋友愿意担任监护责任,经未成年人的父、母的所在单位或者未成年人住所地的居民委员会、村民委员会同意的。对担任监护人有争议的,由未成年人的父、母的所在单位或者未成年人住所地的居民委员会、村民委员会在近亲属中指定。对指定不服提起诉讼的,由人民法院裁决。监护人应当履行监护职责,监护人不履行监护职责或者侵害被监护人的合法权益的,应当承担责任。人民法院可以根据有关人员或者有关单位的申请,撤销监护人的资格。本案中,被申请人余某某作为郑甲的外祖母,在郑甲的父母已经死亡的情形下,是法律规定的郑甲的首选监护人之一。现余某某有监护能力且愿意承担监护职责,又经上海市静安区江宁路街道新安居民委员会指定,其依法担任郑甲的监护人。依照法律规定,申请人也可以担任郑甲的监护人,但双方经过协商,达成了由余某某担任郑甲的监护人的协议,该协议系双方真实意思表示,不违反法律规定,合法有效,具有法律约束力。现申请人申请撤销余某某的监护人资格,但未能充分举证证明余某某担任监护人后有不履行监护职责或者侵害被监护人合法权益的行为,故对于申请人的申请,本院难以支持。至于申请人提及的郑甲的国籍问题,因与本案无涉,本院不作评价。对于申请人要求探望郑甲的诉求,被申请人应当提供相应的便利,被申请人拒不配合的,申请人可以通过合法途径解决。

  (2)案例讨论

  在本案法律适用的问题上,裁判法院直接在裁判书中引用了弱者利益保护原则,在本案中郑甲作为未成年人处于弱势地位,出于对郑甲利益保护最大化的考虑,法院选择了内地法律进行判决。

  二、二次资源

  1、图书

  【检索路径】浙江大学图书馆书目检索--国际私法、弱者、法律适用、权益保护

  【检索结果】共48本,经选择

  ●屈广清等。 国际私法之弱者保护[M].北京:商务印书馆,2011.

  屈广清教授发表过多篇有关弱者利益保护的期刊文献,而他编著的本书是国内对弱者利益保护介绍最为详细的书本之一。在本书中,屈广清教授从国际私法保护弱者的意义,国际私法语境下的弱者,保护弱者之原则与制度、方法,中国国际私法保护弱者之立法这几方面对这一原则从国内外多方面做出了详尽的介绍,是对该原则进行研究的必读基础。

  ●万鄂湘。中华人民共和国涉外民事关系法律适用法条文理解与适用[M].北京:中国法制出版社,2011.

  ●曲波。国际私法本体下弱者利益的保护问题[M].北京:法律出版社,2009.

  《国际私法本体下弱者利益的保护问题》一书主要从国际私法的本体入手,具体采用历史分析方法、语义分析方法、比较分析方法及价值分析方法,对国际私法中的弱者进行阐释,论证国际私法保护弱者利益的正当性,分析国际私法保护弱者利益的现状,探讨如何用国际私法的特有方法和特有制度来更好地对弱者利益进行保护,并进而设计我国未来国际私法立法保护弱者利益方面的条款。

  2、硕博士学位论文

  【检索路径】中国知网--国际私法、弱者、法律适用、利益保护

  【检索结果】共252篇,经选择

  ●梅傲。 国际私法人本论[D].西南政法大学,2014.

  ●李凤琴。 国际合同法律适用发展趋势研究[D].华东政法大学,2011.

  ●曲波。 弱者利益的国际私法保护[D].大连海事大学,2007.

  曲波的博士论文是其著作《国际私法本体下弱者利益的保护问题》的基础,其中他对弱者利益保护中对于人权的追求作出了判断。他在文章中认为,人权的观念已对各个法律部门产生了深刻的影响。不同的法律部门用其特有的调整方法来调整着特定的调整对象…比如与生产者、经营者相比,由于信息不对等等原因,消费者处于弱者地位,而消费者为进行生活消费而完全和公平地获得基本的消费品及服务的权利,实质上是以生存权为主的基本人权。所以为了实质公平与人权保护,保护弱者利益的精神贯穿了国际私法的立法过程。

  3、法学评论文章

  【检索路径】中国知网、北大法宝--国际私法、弱者、法律适用、权益保护

  【检索结果】共1263篇,经选择

  ●袁发强。 我国国际私法中弱者保护制度的反思与重构[J]. 法商研究,2014,(06)。

  与大部分观点相反,作者认为在家庭婚姻关系中不存在弱者,现代文明国家的法律一般都强调人人平等原则,法律本身并不承认哪种人群在社会中享有特殊的法律地位和权利。现代法律并没有赋予男人相对于女人、成年人相对于儿童和老人在家庭中以特别的权利和地位。法律关系中当事人的地位不平等需要通过加强人权保护的方法来实现。在这种不平等的法律关系中,无所谓强者与弱者,而是关乎是否公平、正义的问题。不能把因法律地位不平等而处于弱势地位的整体性人群视为弱者。在国际私法的语境中,弱者具有不同于社会意义和一般法律意义上弱者的含义,是法律选择或争议解决方式及地点选择方面的弱者,而不是民事实体权利义务关系上的弱者。由此,体现弱者保护的法律选择方法或规则直接关注的并非法律选择后果的利益最大化,而在于帮助弱者实现法律保护的权利,在立法或判例中表现为政策定向的法律选择方法或规则。国际私法对弱者保护的目的在于避免所选择的法律会降低对弱者权利的保护程度,而非追求弱者权利实现的最大化。

  ●贺连博。 国际私法中弱者权利保护方法[J]. 法学杂志,2008,(05)。

  国际私法用自己独特的方式保护着涉外民商事交往中弱者群体的正当权益。这里所说的“弱者”主要包括涉外合同领域消费合同中的消费者、雇佣合同中的被雇佣者、技术转让合同中的技术受让方;涉外侵权中的受害人,尤其是涉外产品责任的受害人,以及涉外婚姻家庭领域中需要确认是否有婚生地位的子女;被监护人、被收养人、被扶养人等。

  ●曲波,喻剑利。 解读国际私法领域中弱者的含义及法律特征[J]. 长白学刊,2007,(06)。

  ●胡秀娟。 论国际私法中弱者权益之保护对意思自治原则的冲击[J]. 理论月刊,2006,(11)。

  作者在论文中分析了弱者权益保护原则和意思自治原则的关系,认为弱者权益保护原则是对意思自治的一种限制,只有有限度的意思自治才能平衡各种复杂的社会关系。

  ●屈广清。 论保护弱者的国际私法方法及其立法完善--以冲突规范的保护方法为中心[J]. 法商研究,2006,(05)。

  ●徐冬根。 人文关怀与国际私法中弱者利益保护[J]. 当代法学,2004,(05)。

  ●许军珂。 论国际私法对弱者正当权益的保护[J]. 法学杂志,2003,(04)。

  ●贾明顺。 国际私法中弱者保护与意思自治问题探究。 北京航空航天大学学报,2015,(28)

  作者在文章写道,国际私法上的弱者是指在涉外民商事关系中处于弱势地位或者不利地位的当事人,或是在特定社会关系中处于劣势的一方。国际私法实践中的弱者通常包括: 第一,特殊合同中的一方当事人,如消费合同中的消费者、雇佣合同中的雇员; 第二,侵权法上的受害人; 第三,婚姻家庭中的妇女、未成年人等。

  第四部分、国外法律资源

  一、Primary Sources

  1.Treaties

  【检索路径】United Nations Treaty Collection-Registration & Publication-UN Treaty Series-Applicable law

  【检索结果】

  ●Convention Concerning The Powers Of Authorities and The Law Applicable in The Protection of Children, Article4

  Article 4

  If the authorities of the State of the infant's nationality consider that the interests of the infant so require, they may, after having informed the authorities of the State of his habitual residence, take measures according to their own law for the protection of his person or property.

  That law shall determine the conditions for the initiation, modification and termination of the said measures. It shall also govern their effects both in respect of relations between the infant and the persons or institutions responsible for his care, and in respect of third persons.

  The application of the measures taken shall be assured by the authorities of the State of the infant's nationality.

  The measures taken by virtue of the preceding paragraphs of the present article shall replace any measures which may have been taken by the authorities of the State where the infant has his habitual residence.

  ●Convention on the law applicable to maintenance obligations. Concluded at The Hague on 2 October 1973, Article 4-Article 10

  Article 4. The internal law of the habitual residence of the maintenance creditor shall govern the maintenance obligations referred to in article 1.

  In the case of a change in the habitual residence of the creditor, the internal law of the new habitual residence shall apply as from the moment when the change occurs.

  Article 5. If the creditor is unable, by virtue of the law referred to in article 4, to obtain maintenance from the debtor, the law of their common nationality shall apply.

  Article 6. If the creditor is unable, by virtue of the laws referred to in articles 4 and 5, to obtain maintenance from the debtor, the internal law of the authority seized shall apply.

  Article 7. In the case of a maintenance obligation between persons related col laterally or by affinity, the debtor may contest a request from the creditor on the ground that there is no such obligation under the law of their common nationality or, in the absence of a common nationality, under the internal law of the debtor's habitual residence.

  Article 8. Notwithstanding the provisions of articles 4 to 6, the law applied to a divorce shall, in a Contracting State in which the divorce is granted or recognized, govern the maintenance obligations between the divorced spouses and the revision of decisions relating to these obligations.

  The preceding paragraph shall apply also in the case of a legal separation and in the case of a marriage which has been declared void or annulled.

  Article 9. The right of a public body to obtain reimbursement of benefits provided for the maintenance creditor shall be governed by the law to which the body is subject.

  Article 10. The law applicable to a maintenance obligation shall determine inter alia:

  (1.1) whether, to what extent and from whom a creditor may claim maintenance;

  (2.2) who is entitled to institute maintenance proceedings and the time limits for their institution;

  (3.3) the extent of the obligation of a maintenance debtor, where a public body seeks

  reimbursement of benefits provided for a creditor.

  Article 11. The application of the law designated by this Convention may be refused only if it is manifestly incompatible with public policy (order public)。

  However, even if the applicable law provides otherwise, the needs of the creditor and the resources of the debtor shall be taken into account in determining the amount of maintenance.

  ●Convention on the law applicable to contractual obligations

  Article 5

  2. Notwithstanding the provisions of Article 3, a choice of law made by the parties shall not have the result of depriving the consumer of the protection afforded to him by mandatory rules of the law of the country in which he has habitual residence:

  -if in that country the conclusion of the contract was preceded by a specific invitation addressed to him or by advertising, and he had taken in that country all the steps necessary on his part for the conclusion of the contract, or

  -if the other party or his agent received the consumer's order in that country, or

  -if the contract is for the sale of goods and the consumer travelled from that country to another country and there gave his order, provided that the consumer's journey was arranged by the seller to inducing the consumer to buy.

  2.Cases

  【检索路径】Westlaw-Primary Sources-Cases-Applicable law and interests of the weak and public policy and substantive justice and conflict law

  【检索结果】共40篇,经选择

  ●Estate of Pigorsch ex rel. Martin v. York College, 734 F.Supp.2d 704. Aug 18, 2010, United States District Court, N.D. lowa, Western Division.

  Court had use Iowa choice of law rules to determine whether law of Iowa, Nebraska, or Kansas applied; place of injury, as well as place where conduct that caused injury occurred, could be grouped with business interests of magazine distributor in Iowa so that distributor's contact with Iowa was of considerably greater weight than residence of deceased student athlete or Nebraska college's place of business; needs of interstate and international systems supported application of Iowa law; consideration and comparison of policies and relative interests of nominee states weighed in favor of application of Iowa law.

  对于弱者利益的保护也时常表现在最密切联系原则这一国际私法的普遍原则之中。法院往往通过对连结点的细化分割以及在选择连结点时着重考虑对弱者利益以及利益衡平等方法选择适用法律

  ●Johnson v. American Leather Specialties Corp, 578 F.Supp.2d 1154, September.29, 2008.

  ●DJR Associates, LLC v. Hmmonds, F. Supp.3d, March 13, 2017, United States District Court, N.D. Alabama, Southern Division

  Under Alabama law, clause in employment agreement between chemical company and its salesman, which provided that Alabama law would apply “without regard to the conflict of laws provision thereof,” was unenforceable to extent that it was intended to override Alabama conflict-of-laws rules; conflict-of-laws rules addressed the fundamental public policy of the states interested in the dispute, and parties could not override state law on that question, since doing so essentially nullified the state law invoked to decide which state law must apply. Restatement (Second) Conflicts of Law § 187 .

  法官认为该案涉及到了Alabama州的公共政策问题,对于本州法律中的强制性问题,必须选择适用本州的法律。公共秩序原则对于弱者利益--在本案中表现为雇员利益--的保护起到的是安全阀的作用,即不得有低于该法规定标准的法律适用,保护了相对弱者在法律选择上的基础利益。

  ●Neely v. Club Med Management Services, Inc,  63 F.3d 166, July 26,1995, United States Court of Appeals, Third Circuit

  The solution to the lack of guidance lies in approaching the Lauritzen analysis in a way that is faithful to its nature as a specialized form of interest analysis designed to ensure that American maritime law of personal injuries applies only where significant American interests are implicated and only in conformity with international law. Specifically, we interpret the notion of “substantial contacts” to embody these twin concerns in a two-step inquiry derived from international law. We conclude below that, in a Jones Act or general maritime law case, a court deciding whether American contacts are “substantial” (so that American law applies) must at the threshold ask whether one of the following factors is involved in the incident, in which case there is a basis for prescriptive jurisdiction (which, we explain infra subsection 1, means that significant American interests are implicated): injury to an American seaman or a seaman with American dependents, injury in American territory, American defendants, an American flagged ship, or a contractual choice of law clause specifying American law. If so, the second step in the substantial contacts inquiry is for the court to ascertain whether application of American law is reasonable under the circumstances, in which case (as subsection *183 2 describes) international law is satisfied.

  3.Statues

  【检索路径】Statutes & Court Rules- Statutes-Applicable law

  【检索结果】

  V.T.C.A, Labor Code§ 308.009 Rights and Duties of Participating Trainees

  (a) Each trainee who participates in the program shall work during the training course not less than the minimum number of hours required under applicable federal law for work participation for recipients of public assistance.

  该条款为受雇者的公共教育时间规定了最低标准,适用其他州法时不得低于该标准。

  V.T.C.A., Labor Code§ 408.001. Exclusive Remedy; Exemplary Damages

  (a) Recovery of workers' compensation benefits is the exclusive remedy of an employee covered by workers' compensation insurance coverage or a legal beneficiary against the employer or an agent or employee of the employer for the death of or a work-related injury sustained by the employee.

  该条款规定了为工伤规定了排他性的补偿条款,以防止在本州内发生的工伤事故可能适用低于本州标准的其他州法,为雇佣者提供了保护性的防范作用。

  二、Secondary Sources

  1.Restatement of American Laws

  【检索路径】Westlaw-Secondary Sources-Restatement of American Law& Principle -Conflict Law

  【检索结果】

  ●Restatement (Second) of Conflict of Laws § 184 (1971)

  Recovery for tort or wrongful death will not be permitted in any state if the defendant is declared immune from such liability by the workmen's compensation statute of a state under which the defendant is required to provide insurance against the particular risk and under which

  (a) the plaintiff has obtained an award for the injury, or

  (b) the plaintiff could obtain an award for the injury, if this is the state (1) where the injury occurred, or (2) where employment is principally located, or (3) where the employer supervised the employee's activities from a place of business in the state, or (4) whose local law governs the contract of employment under the rules of §§ 187- 188 and 196.

  ●Restatement (Second) of Conflict of Laws § 192 (1971)

  The validity of a life insurance contract issued to the insured upon his application and the rights created thereby are determined, in the absence of an effective choice of law by the insured in his application, by the local law of the state where the insured was domiciled at the time the policy was applied for, unless, with respect to the particular issue, some other state has a more significant relationship under the principles stated in § 6 to the transaction and the parties, in which event the local law of the other state will be applied.

  2.Law Review Articles

  【检索路径】Westlaw-Secondary Sources-Law Review Articles--Applicable law and interests of the weak and public policy and substantive justice and conflict law

  Heionline--Law Journal Library--Applicable law and interests of the weak and public policy and substantive justice and conflict law

  【检索结果】共38164篇,经选择

  ●Nancy Ehrenreich, Foreword: Conceptualizing Substantive Justice,13 J. Gender Race & Just. Rev.13, 533,574 (2009-2010)。

  “Substantive justice” emphasizes the substantive rather than the formal understanding of legal rules and their management of civil relations; it defines the fairness of non-formality in redistribution; and recognizes their own contingency and normality. In short, the concept of substantive justice not only contains the critics of the liberal challenge, but also try to promote the positive changes in legal thinking. Postmodern legal critics (and some of the American legal realists before them) also reveal that legal reasoning is not entirely reasonable, neutral, and objective, but politically judged.

  ●A.J.E. Jaffey, the Foundation of Rules for the Choice of Law, 2 Oxford J. Legal Stud. Rev. 368,392 (1982)。

  ●Christa Roodt, The integration of substantive law interests and material justice in South African choice of law, 36 Comp&Int'l L.J.S.Afr. 1,24(2003)

  Justice plays an important part in setting boundaries for application of choice of law rules. One of the classic dilemmas of the conflict of laws lies on the terrain of the true implications of the meaning of justice in international cases. 'Conflicts justice' may be distinguished from 'substantive justice' for purposes of analysis, but it is also possible to regard the two concepts in competition with each other.

  ●Michael Kearney Lawfare, Legitimacy and resistance: The Weak and the law: 16 Pal. Y.B. Int'l L.79(2010)

  The Lawfare phenomenon is readily identifiable by reference to the identity of its alleged proponents. These are variously “Islamic orientated human rights organization[s] ,”4 al Qaeda,9 “NGO superpowers,”“ and a ”self-perpetuating inter- national legal establishment.“” A defining feature of Lawfare, and one which accentuates its 'war on terror' pedigree, is the interchangeable use of the terms 'enemy,' 'terrorist,' 'Islamic,' and 'Palestinian,' typically in a tone and substance both subjective and spurious.52 That is not to say that the recurring motifs found in such pieces are not worthy of intellectual attention, but there is an almost total failure to address and engage with the substantive issues of law and fact. These include the fluctuating meaning of sovereignty, what constitutes self-defense, defamation of religion, the use of international law by national courts, the development of customary international law, and indeed the purpose and nature of international law.

  第五部分 总结

  在通过国内外法律资料比对之后,我们可以发现无论是立法还是司法我国在弱者利益保护方面仍然与国际存在一定的差距。首先,我们应当在立法和司法中更加明确究竟何谓弱者。在当前的理论和实践中大部分国家都将弱者的概念延伸到了侵权、特殊种类合同和家庭婚姻领域,但鉴于弱者概念的这种相对性,如何更好更公正地确定弱者的概念以真正地在实践中保护需要保护的一方。第二,我国立法在弱者利益保护方面的发展趋向,如何在具体制度的设计甚至弱者利益保护作为一项原则在涉外民事法律关系法律适用法方面做出规定。

【注释】
[1]北大法宝http://www.pkulaw.cn/case/pfnl_1970324844181679.html?keywords=李敏等诉区兆深抚养费案&match=Exact
[2]北大法宝http://www.pkulaw.cn/case/pfnl_1970324857616984.html?keywords=申请人胡某某与被申请人余某某申请撤销监护人资格案&match=Exact
        
        
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